Massage Therapy

Hand, Elbow & Forearm Anatomy

Carpal Bones

  1. Pisiform
  2. Triquetral
  3. Lunate
  4. Scaphoid
  5. Trapezium
  6. Trapezoid
  7. Capitate
  8. Hamate
Hand Bones

Hand Muscles
Hand Muscles

Elbow Muscles

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Triceps Brachii Infraglenoid Tubercle of Scapula; Posterior Shaft of Humerus; Posterior Humeral Shaft Distal to Radial Groove Olecranon of Ulna Extend Elbow Radial Nerve
Anconeus Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus Lateral to the Olecranon of Ulna Extend Elbow Radial Nerve
Biceps Brachii (Short head) Coracoid Process of Scapula & (Long head) Supraglenoid Tubercule of Scapula Radial Tuberosity & Bicipital Aponeurosis Flex & Supinate Forearm at Elbow; Flex Arm at Shoulder Musculocutaneous Nerve
Brachialis Front of Distal Half of Humerus Coronoid Process & Tuberosity of Ulna Flex Forearm at the Elbow Musculocutaneous Nerve
Brachioradialis Upper ⅔ of Lateral Supracondylar Ridge at Distal End of Humerus Base of Radial Styloid Process Flex Forearm at the Elbow Radial Nerve

Forearm Muscles

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Superficial Anterior Muscles
Pronator Teres Medial Supracondylar Ridge of Humerus & Coronoid Process of Ulna Mid Shaft of Radius Pronate Forearm & Flex Forearm at the Elbow Median Nerve
Flexor Carpi Radialis Medial Epicondyle of Humerus Second & Third Metacarpals Flex Wrist & Deviate towards Radius Median Nerve
Palmaris Longus Medial Epicondyle of Humerus Palmar Aponeurosis (Fascia of Palm) Flex Wrist Median Nerve
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Medial Epicondyle of Humerus & Olecranon and Posterior Surface of Ulna Pisiform & Hamate Bones & Base of Fifth Metacarpal Flex Wrist & Deviate towards Ulna Ulnar Nerve
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Medial Epicondyle of Humerus, Coronoid Process of Ulna & Shaft of Radius Middle Phalanges Flex Wrist Median Nerve
Deep Muscles
Flexor Digitorum Profundus Coronoid Process, Anteromedial Surface of Ulna & Interosseous Membrane Distal Phalanges Flex Distal Interphalangeal Joints Medial Half by Ulnar Nerve; Lateral Half by Median Nerve
Flexor Pollicis Longus Anterior Surface of Radius and Interosseous Membrane Distal Phalanx Flex Thumb Branch of Median Nerve
Pronator Quadratus Distal Anterior Ulnar Shaft Distal Anterior Radius Pronate Forearm Median Nerve
Supinator Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus & Proximal Ulna Proximal End of Radius Supinate Forearm Posterior Interosseous Nerve
Superficial Posterior Muscles
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Lower ⅓ of Lateral Supracondylar Ridge of Humerus Base of Second Metacarpal Extend Wrist & Deviate towards Radius Radial Nerve
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus Base of Third Metacarpal Extend Wrist & Deviate towards Radius Radial Nerve
Extensor Digitorum Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus Extensor Expansions & Distal Phalanges Extend Wrist & Abduct (Spread) Fingers Posterior Interosseous Nerve & Radial Nerve
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus & Posterior Border of Ulna Base of Fifth Metacarpal Extend Wrist & Deviate towards Ulna Posterior Interosseous Nerve

Forearm Muscles
Bodyweight Exercises

Shoulder Anatomy

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Thoracodorsal Joint
Trapezius Occipital Bone, Ligamentum Nuchae, C7-T12 Vertebrae Spinous Processes Lateral Third of the Clavicle, Acromion & Medial End of the Spine of the Scapula Upper (descending part): Elevate Scapula & Extend Neck; Middle: Retract Scapula; Lower (ascending part): Depress Scapula; descending & ascending parts act together to rotate upward Spinal Accessory Nerve
Rhomboid Minor & Major Ligamentum Nuchae, C7-T1 & T2-T5 Spinous Processes Medial Border of the Scapula Retract & Elevate the Medial Border of Scapula & Rotate the Lateral Angle Downward Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C4 & C5)
Serratus Anterior Lateral Surfaces of the Upper Eight Ribs Medial Border of the Scapula Protract Scapula & Rotate Scapula Upward Long Thoracic Nerve
Levator Scapulae Transverse Processes of the C1-C4 Vertebrae Medial Border of the Scapula Elevate the Medial Border of Scapula; Rotate the Lateral Angle Downward; Laterally Flex Neck Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5) & Ventral Primary Rami of C3 & C4
Pectoralis Minor Third, Fourth & Fifth Ribs Coracoid Process Draws the Scapula Forward and Downward Medial & Lateral Pectoral Nerves
Glenohumeral Joint
Pectoralis Major Sternum, Costal Cartilage Ribs 1-6, Medial Half of the Clavicle, Aponeurosis of Obliquus Externus Abdominis Lateral Lip of Intertubercular Groove Internally Rotate, Flex & Adduct Shoulder Medial & Lateral Pectoral Nerves
Deltoid Lateral Third of the Clavicle, Acromion & the Spine of the Scapula Deltoid Tubercle on the Lateral Surface of the Humerus Abduct Shoulder Axillary Nerve
Coraco-brachialis Coracoid Process Medial Mid-shaft Humerus Flex & Adduct Shoulder Musculocutaneous Nerve
Latissimus Dorsi Spinous Processes of Inferior 6 Thoracic Vertebrae, Iliac Crest, Sacrum, Thoracolumbar Fascia, Inferior 3 or 4 ribs Floor of Intertubercular Groove Extend, Internally Rotate & Adduct Shoulder Thoracodorsal Nerve
Teres Major Inferior Angle of Scapula Medial Lip of Intertubercular Groove Extend, Internally Rotate & Adduct Shoulder Lower Subscapular Nerve
Rotator Cuff
Supraspinatus Supraspinous Fossa Top of the Greater Tubercle of Humerus Abduct & Stabilize Shoulder Suprascapular Nerve
Infraspinatus Infraspinous Fossa Back of the Greater Tubercle of Humerus Externally Rotate & Stabilize Shoulder Suprascapular Nerve
Teres Minor Lateral Border Inferior of the Greater Tubercle of Humerus Externally Rotate & Stabilize Shoulder Axillary Nerve
Subscapularis Subscapular Fossa Lesser Tubercle of Humerus Internally Rotate, Depress & Stabilize Shoulder Subscapular Nerves
Shoulder Muscles

Lower Limb Anatomy

Knee & Hip Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Sartorius Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Anteromedial Surface of the Proximal Tibia in the Pes Anserinus Flex Knee & Flex, Abduct, Laterally Rotate Hip Femoral Nerve
Gracilis Pubic Ramus Anteromedial Surface of the Proximal Tibia in the Pes Anserinus Flex Knee & Flex, Adduct, Medially Rotate Hip Obturator Nerve
Pectineus Pecten Pubis Pectineal Line of the Femur Adduct & Flex Hip Femoral Nerve
Quadraceps Femoris
Rectus Femoris Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) & Upper Lip of the Acetabulum Patella Tendon Extend Knee & Flex Hip Femoral Nerve
Vastus Medialis Medial Side of the Femur Quadriceps Tendon Extend Knee Femoral Nerve
Vastus Lateralis Greater Trochanter, Intertrochanteric Line, Linea Aspera of the Femur Quadriceps Tendon Extend Knee Femoral Nerve
Vastus Intermedius Anterolateral Surfaces of the Femur Quadriceps Tendon Extend Knee Femoral Nerve
Articularis Genus Femur Suprapatellar Bursa Pull the Suprapatellar Bursa superiorly during knee extension Femoral Nerve
Tensor Vastus Intermedius Anterior Aspect of the Greater Trochanter Medial Aspect of the Patella Medialise the action and tense on the aponeurosis of the Vastus Intermedius Femoral Nerve
Hamstrings
Biceps Femoris Ischial Tuberosity (Long Head) & Linea Aspera (Short Head) Head of Fibula Extend Hip (Long Head) & Flex Knee; Lateral Rotation with Knee Flexed Sciatic Nerve
Semimembranosus Ischial Tuberosity Posterior Medial Condyle of Tibia Extend Hip & Flex Knee Sciatic Nerve
Semitendinosis Ischial Tuberosity Anteromedial Surface of the Proximal Tibia in the Pes Anserinus Extend Hip & Flex Knee Sciatic Nerve

Hip Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Tensor Fasciae Latae Anterior Iliac Crest, Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Iliotibial Band Flex & Abduct Hip, Internal Rotation Superior Gluteal Nerve
Iliopsoas (Psoas Major & Iliacus)
Psoas Major T12 & Lumbar Vertebrae Lesser Trochanter Flex Hip Lumbar Plexus
Iliacus Iliac Fossa Lesser Trochanter Flex Hip Femoral Nerve
Anterior Hip Muscles
Lateral Rotators
Obturator Internus Obturator Membrane Greater Trochanter Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Obturator Internus
Obturator Externus Obturator Foramen Greater Trochanter Laterally Rotate Hip Posterior Branch of Obturator Nerve
Gemellus Inferior Ischial Tuberosity Obturator Internus Tendon Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Quadratus Femoris
Gemellus Superior Ischial Spine Obturator Internus Tendon Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Obturator Internus
Piriformis Sacrum Greater Trochanter Laterally Rotate Hip; Abduction with Hip Flexion Nerve to the Piriformis
Quadratus Femoris Ischial Tuberosity Intertrochanteric Crest Adduct & Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Quadratus Femoris
Adductors
Adductor Longus Below Pubic Tubercle Middle Third of Linea Aspera Adduct, Flex & Medially Rotate Hip Obturator Nerve
Adductor Brevis Inferior Pubic Ramus Proximal Portion of Linea Aspera Adduct, Flex & Medially Rotate Hip Obturator Nerve
Adductor Magnus Inferior Pubic Ramus & Ischial Ramus (Oblique Head); Ischial Tuberosity (Vertical Head) Gluteal Tuberosity, Linea Aspera & Proximal Supracondylar Line of Femur (Oblique Head); Adductor Tubercle (Vertical Head) Adduct & Flex Hip (Oblique Head); Extend Hip (Vertical Head) Obturator Nerve (Oblique Head); Sciatic Nerve (Vertical Head)
Gluts
Gluteus Maximus Posterior of Gluteal Surface of Ilium, Back of Sacrum, Lumbodorsal Fascia, Sacrotuberous Ligament, Gluteal Aponeurosis Gluteal Tuberosity of Femur; Iliotibial Band Extend Hip; External Rotation Inferior Gluteal Nerve
Gluteus Medius Gluteal Surface of Ilium Greater Trochanter Abduct Hip; Internal Rotation Superior Gluteal Nerve
Gluteus Minimus Gluteal Surface of Ilium Greater Trochanter Abduct Hip; Internal Rotation Superior Gluteal Nerve
Posterior Hip Muscles

Ankle Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Tibialis Anterior Upper Half & Lateral Condyle of Tibia; Interosseous Margin Medial Cuneiform & First Metatarsal Dorsiflex Ankle & Invert Foot Deep Fibular Nerve
Tibialis Posterior Tibia & Fibula Navicular & Medial Cuneiform Bone Plantar Flex Ankle & Invert Foot Tibial Nerve
Calf (a.k.a. Triceps Surae)
Gastrocnemius Medial Condyle of Femur (Medial Head); Lateral Condyle of Femur (Lateral Head) Posterior Calcaneus via Calcaneal Tendon Plantar Flex Ankle & Flex Knee Tibial Nerve
Soleus Fibula & Soleal Line of Tibia Posterior Calcaneus via Calcaneal Tendon Plantar Flex Ankle Tibial Nerve

Sub-Talar Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Fibularis
Fibularis Longus Upper ⅔ of Lateral Shaft of the Fibula Medial Cuneiform & First Metatarsal Platar Flex Ankle & Evert Foot Superficial Fibular Nerve
Fibularis Brevis Lower ⅔ of Lateral Shaft of the Fibula Fifth Metatarsal Plantar Flex Ankle & Evert Foot Superficial Fibular Nerve
Fibularis Tertius Distal Anterior Surface of the Fibula Dorsal Surface of Fifth Metatarsal Dorsiflex Ankle & Evert Foot Deep Fibular Nerve

History of Modern Massage Therapy

Course Study Notes (Abridged Version)

Per Henrik Ling

  • Swedish Movements system that encompassed active, passive, and duplicated movements
  • Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics, 1813–1839

Johann Mezger of Holland

  • medical massage
  • used French terminology to describe particular massage techniques in the Ling system

George Henry Taylor and Charles Fayette Taylor

  • introduced the Ling system to the USA in 1856

John Harvey Kellog

  • published a wellness magazine called Good Health, which was well received by the public

WWI

  • The turn of the century showed significant development in the field of physical therapy.