Lower Limb Anatomy

Knee & Hip Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Sartorius Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Anteromedial Surface of the Proximal Tibia in the Pes Anserinus Flex Knee & Flex, Abduct, Laterally Rotate Hip Femoral Nerve
Gracilis Pubic Ramus Anteromedial Surface of the Proximal Tibia in the Pes Anserinus Flex Knee & Flex, Adduct, Medially Rotate Hip Obturator Nerve
Pectineus Pecten Pubis Pectineal Line of the Femur Adduct & Flex Hip Femoral Nerve
Quadraceps Femoris
Rectus Femoris Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) & Upper Lip of the Acetabulum Patella Tendon Extend Knee & Flex Hip Femoral Nerve
Vastus Medialis Medial Side of the Femur Quadriceps Tendon Extend Knee Femoral Nerve
Vastus Lateralis Greater Trochanter, Intertrochanteric Line, Linea Aspera of the Femur Quadriceps Tendon Extend Knee Femoral Nerve
Vastus Intermedius Anterolateral Surfaces of the Femur Quadriceps Tendon Extend Knee Femoral Nerve
Articularis Genus Femur Suprapatellar Bursa Pull the Suprapatellar Bursa superiorly during knee extension Femoral Nerve
Tensor Vastus Intermedius Anterior Aspect of the Greater Trochanter Medial Aspect of the Patella Medialise the action and tense on the aponeurosis of the Vastus Intermedius Femoral Nerve
Hamstrings
Biceps Femoris Ischial Tuberosity (Long Head) & Linea Aspera (Short Head) Head of Fibula Extend Hip (Long Head) & Flex Knee; Lateral Rotation with Knee Flexed Sciatic Nerve
Semimembranosus Ischial Tuberosity Posterior Medial Condyle of Tibia Extend Hip & Flex Knee Sciatic Nerve
Semitendinosis Ischial Tuberosity Anteromedial Surface of the Proximal Tibia in the Pes Anserinus Extend Hip & Flex Knee Sciatic Nerve

Hip Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Tensor Fasciae Latae Anterior Iliac Crest, Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Iliotibial Band Flex & Abduct Hip, Internal Rotation Superior Gluteal Nerve
Iliopsoas (Psoas Major & Iliacus)
Psoas Major T12 & Lumbar Vertebrae Lesser Trochanter Flex Hip Lumbar Plexus
Iliacus Iliac Fossa Lesser Trochanter Flex Hip Femoral Nerve
Anterior Hip Muscles
Lateral Rotators
Obturator Internus Obturator Membrane Greater Trochanter Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Obturator Internus
Obturator Externus Obturator Foramen Greater Trochanter Laterally Rotate Hip Posterior Branch of Obturator Nerve
Gemellus Inferior Ischial Tuberosity Obturator Internus Tendon Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Quadratus Femoris
Gemellus Superior Ischial Spine Obturator Internus Tendon Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Obturator Internus
Piriformis Sacrum Greater Trochanter Laterally Rotate Hip; Abduction with Hip Flexion Nerve to the Piriformis
Quadratus Femoris Ischial Tuberosity Intertrochanteric Crest Adduct & Laterally Rotate Hip Nerve to Quadratus Femoris
Adductors
Adductor Longus Below Pubic Tubercle Middle Third of Linea Aspera Adduct, Flex & Medially Rotate Hip Obturator Nerve
Adductor Brevis Inferior Pubic Ramus Proximal Portion of Linea Aspera Adduct, Flex & Medially Rotate Hip Obturator Nerve
Adductor Magnus Inferior Pubic Ramus & Ischial Ramus (Oblique Head); Ischial Tuberosity (Vertical Head) Gluteal Tuberosity, Linea Aspera & Proximal Supracondylar Line of Femur (Oblique Head); Adductor Tubercle (Vertical Head) Adduct & Flex Hip (Oblique Head); Extend Hip (Vertical Head) Obturator Nerve (Oblique Head); Sciatic Nerve (Vertical Head)
Gluts
Gluteus Maximus Posterior of Gluteal Surface of Ilium, Back of Sacrum, Lumbodorsal Fascia, Sacrotuberous Ligament, Gluteal Aponeurosis Gluteal Tuberosity of Femur; Iliotibial Band Extend Hip; External Rotation Inferior Gluteal Nerve
Gluteus Medius Gluteal Surface of Ilium Greater Trochanter Abduct Hip; Internal Rotation Superior Gluteal Nerve
Gluteus Minimus Gluteal Surface of Ilium Greater Trochanter Abduct Hip; Internal Rotation Superior Gluteal Nerve
Posterior Hip Muscles

Ankle Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Tibialis Anterior Upper Half & Lateral Condyle of Tibia; Interosseous Margin Medial Cuneiform & First Metatarsal Dorsiflex Ankle & Invert Foot Deep Fibular Nerve
Tibialis Posterior Tibia & Fibula Navicular & Medial Cuneiform Bone Plantar Flex Ankle & Invert Foot Tibial Nerve
Calf (a.k.a. Triceps Surae)
Gastrocnemius Medial Condyle of Femur (Medial Head); Lateral Condyle of Femur (Lateral Head) Posterior Calcaneus via Calcaneal Tendon Plantar Flex Ankle & Flex Knee Tibial Nerve
Soleus Fibula & Soleal Line of Tibia Posterior Calcaneus via Calcaneal Tendon Plantar Flex Ankle Tibial Nerve

Sub-Talar Joint

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Fibularis
Fibularis Longus Upper ⅔ of Lateral Shaft of the Fibula Medial Cuneiform & First Metatarsal Platar Flex Ankle & Evert Foot Superficial Fibular Nerve
Fibularis Brevis Lower ⅔ of Lateral Shaft of the Fibula Fifth Metatarsal Plantar Flex Ankle & Evert Foot Superficial Fibular Nerve
Fibularis Tertius Distal Anterior Surface of the Fibula Dorsal Surface of Fifth Metatarsal Dorsiflex Ankle & Evert Foot Deep Fibular Nerve
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