Five Limbs of the Vedic Calendar

Vāsara (Day of the Week)

Vāsara Graha Symbol Guna
Sunday Sun (Sūrya) Sattva
Monday Moon (Čandra) Sattva
Tuesday Mars (Maṅgala) Tamas
Wednesday Mercury (Budha) Rajas
Thursday Jupiter (Bṛhaspati) Sattva
Friday Venus (Śukra) Rajas
Saturday Saturn (Śani) Tamas

Tithi (Lunar Day)

Tithi Meaning
Nanda Joy
Bhadra Good
Jaya Conquest
Rikta Empty
Pūrṇa Complete

Nakṣatra (Asterism)

The Atharva-Veda-Saṃhitā: Śaunaka recension lists 28 asterisms (nakṣatra).

The 27 asterisms (nakṣatra), each with 4 pada, give 108, which is the number of beads in a japa mala.

Nakṣatra Associated Stars Graha
Aśvinī β and γ Arietis Ketu
Bharaṇī 35, 39, and 41 Arietis Śukra
Kṛttikā Pleiades Sūrya
Rohiṇī Aldebaran Čandra
Mṛgaśiras λ, φ Orionis Maṅgala
Ārdrā Betelgeuse Rahu
Punarvasu Castor and Pollux Bṛhaspati
Puṣya γ, δ and θ Cancri Śani
Aśleṣā δ, ε, η, ρ, and σ Hydrae Budha
Maghā Regulus Ketu
Pūrva Phalguṇī δ and θ Leonis Śukra
Uttara Phalguṇī Denebola Sūrya
Hasta α, β, γ, δ and ε Corvi Čandra
Citrā Spica Maṅgala
Svāti Arcturus Rahu
Viśākha α, β, γ and ι Librae Bṛhaspati
Anurādhā β, δ and π Scorpionis Śani
Jyeṣṭha α, σ, and τ Scorpionis Budha
Mūla ε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ and ν Scorpionis Ketu
Pūrvāṣāḍha δ and ε Sagittarii Śukra
Uttarāṣāḍha ζ and σ Sagittarii Sūrya
Śravaṇa α, β and γ Aquilae Čandra
Śraviṣṭhā (or Dhaniṣṭha) α to δ Delphinus Maṅgala
Śatabhiṣak (or Śatatārakā) γ Aquarii Rahu
Pūrva Bhādrapadā α and β Pegasi Bṛhaspati
Uttara Bhādrapadā γ Pegasi and α Andromedae Śani
Revatī ζ Piscium Budha

Rahu & Ketu
Yoga

The pañčāñgam lists 27 divisions, yogas, based on the ecliptic longitude of the sun and moon.

  1. Viṣkambha
  2. Prīti
  3. Āyuśmān
  4. Saubhāgya
  5. Śobhana
  6. Atigaṇḍa
  7. Sukarma
  8. Dhṛti
  9. Śūla
  10. Gaṇḍa
  11. Vṛddhi
  12. Dhruva
  13. Vyāghatā
  14. Harṣaṇa
  15. Vajra
  16. Siddhi
  17. Vyatipāta
  18. Variyas
  19. Parigha
  20. Śiva
  21. Siddha
  22. Sādhya
  23. Śubha
  24. Śukla
  25. Brahma
  26. Māhendra
  27. Vaidhṛti

Karaṇa

Karaṇa is the time required for the angular distance between the sun and the moon to increase in steps of 6° starting from 0°.

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