It is important to develop a practical knowledge of breath-oriented, myoneural exercise therapy for the back, the socket joints and the extremities.
What is Neuromuscular Dynamics?
Muscle spindles are small encapsulated sensory receptors that have a spindle-like or fusiform shape and are located within the fleshy part of the muscle.
Myotatic Reflex (Liddell-Sherrington reflex) occurs when the muscle spindles react to stretching by contracting the skeletal muscle.
Sherrington’s Law of Reciprocal Innervation: When contraction of a muscle is stimulated, there is a simultaneous inhibition of its antagonist. The reciprocal inhibition reflex causes the stretched muscle group to relax when the shortened muscle group is tensed.
The neuronal circuit that causes reciprocal inhibition is called reciprocal innervation.
Golgi tendon organ
Inverse myotatic reflex (a.k.a. Golgi tendon reflex) is a bisynaptic reflex, initiated by the Golgi tendon organ located in muscle tendons. However, unlike the muscle spindle, which acts as a length-detector, the Golgi tendon organ acts as a tension-detector.
To prevent damage to the tendon due to the muscle pulling too hard on it, the inverse myotatic (relaxation) reflex is initiated by increasing tension in the tendon, and the contraction of the muscle is inhibited.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretching Techniques in a Nutshell
Hold-Relax (using the Golgi tendon organ): Place the restricted muscle in a position of stretch, followed by an isometric contraction of the restricted muscle. Relax and hold the passive stretch at a greater range.
Contract-Relax-Antagonist-Contract (using reciprocal inhibition): Place the restricted muscle in a position of stretch, followed by an isometric contraction of the agonist. Relax the agonist muscle, and isometrically contract the antagonist muscle.